Studien und Aufsätze zur Wirkung von Gendermarketing

Studien zum Thema Gendermarkerting

1. Global Early Adolescent Study – Rosa-Hellblau-Falle® weltweit präsent

Das Forscher*innen-Team hat Ergebnisse aus 15 Ländern zusammengetragen. Rund 450 Heranwachsende sowie je ein*e Erziehungsberechtigte*e oder Elternteil wurden befragt, sie leben in Ägypten, Belgien, Bolivien, Burkina Faso, China, der Demokratischen Republik Kongo, Ecuador, Indien, Kenia, Malawi, Nigeria, Schottland, Südafrika, den USA und Vietnam.

The researchers found that gender-based restrictions rationalized as “protecting” girls actually made them more vulnerable by emphasizing subservience and implicitly sanctioning even physical abuse as punishment for violating norms. They observed that “in many parts of the world” these stereotypes leave girls at greater risk of dropping out of school or suffering physical and sexual violence, child marriage, early pregnancy, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Rollenklischees schaden Mädchen genauso wie Jungen:

They point out that the stereotypes they learn in early adolescence—the emphasis on physical strength and independence—make them more likely to be the victims of physical violence and more prone to tobacco and other substance abuse, as well as homicide. Also, when researchers examined attitudes about gender roles among young adolescents in China, India, Belgium and the United States, they found a growing acceptance for girls pushing against certain gender boundaries, but almost zero tolerance for boys who do.


2. Pink gives girls permission

Exploring the roles of explicit gender labels and gender-typed colors on preschool children’s toy preferences. 

Erica S. Weisgram, Megan Fulcher, Lisa M. Dinella

"Children engage in gender-typed toy play to a greater extent than in non-gender-typed toy play leading to different developmental trajectories for boys and girls. The present studies examine the characteristics of toys and how they differentially affect boys‘ and girls‘ interests, stereotypes, and judgments of the toys."

In: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 35, Issue 5, September–October 2014, Pages 401-409, online verfügbar auf SienceDirect


3. Are gendered toys harming childhood development?

Research has found that dividing children’s toys based on gender can have lasting developmental implications

Artikel von Olga Oksman im Guardian zu Untersuchungen von Christia Spears Brown.

"For example, in one experiment, researchers took toys that kids had not seen before and put them in stereotypical girl boxes or stereotypical boy boxes and gave them to a group of children. Girls played with the toys in the girl boxes and boys gravitated to the toys in the boy boxes. Both genders focused on the toys in the boxes meant for their gender and did not pay much attention to toys marked for the opposite gender."

4. Pretty in Pink: The early development of gender-stereotyped colour preferences

Eine Studie mit Kindern zwischen 7 Monaten und 5 Jahren von Vanessa LoBue, Judy DeLoache

In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology 29(Pt 3): 656-67 // DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-835X.2011.02027.x

"Each child was tasked with choosing between two similar objects, one of which was pink, the other blue. It was around the age of two that girls began to select the pink toy more often than the blue one; at two and a half, the preference for pink became even more pronounced. Boys developed an aversion to the pink toy along the same timeline."

Alice Robb in der NY Times: How gender-specific toys can negatively impact a child’s development


5. The Gender Marketing of Toys: An Analysis of Color and Type of Toy on the Disney Store Website.

Carol J. Auster, Claire S. Mansbach

The purpose of this study was to examine 1) the extent to which the gender marketing of toys on the Internet replicates findings of previous studies of the gendering of toys, and 2) the extent to which toys for “both boys and girls”, a previously overlooked category of toys, share characteristics, such as color and type of toy, with toys marketed for “boys only” or for “girls only”.

In: Sex Roles 67, 375–388 (2012) // DOI: 10.1007/s11199-012-0177-8


6. Girls feel they must ‘play dumb’ to please boys

Maria do Mar Pereira

“There are very strong pressures in society that dictate what is a proper man and a proper woman”, argues Dr Pereira. “Young people try to adapt their behaviour according to these pressures to fit into society. One of the pressures is that young men must be more dominant – cleverer, stronger, taller, funnier – than young women, and that being in a relationship with a woman who is more intelligent will undermine their masculinity”.

Pressemeldung der University of Warwick, 5 August 2014


7. Gruppenzwang schon im Vorschulalter

Daniel B.M. Haun

Menschen passen nicht nur ihr Äußeres an verschiedene, oberflächliche Modeerscheinungen an, sondern orientieren ihre Meinung oft an der Mehrheitsmeinung, selbst wenn diese nicht ihrer eigenen entspricht. Wissenschaftler vom Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie in Leipzig und für Psycholinguistik in Nijmegen, Niederlande, haben dieses Phänomen bei Vierjährigen untersucht und herausgefunden, dass auch diese bereits einem Gruppenzwang unterliegen.

Daniel B.M. Haun & Michael Tomasello. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children Child Development, 25. Oktober 2011

8. Karten zur Geburt – Sweetness vs. Happiness

Judith S. Bridges

Verbal messages of expressiveness, including sweetness and sharing, appeared on more girl than boy cards. In addition, more boy than girl birth cards presented a message of happiness for the parents and/or the baby.

Bridges, J. S. (1993). Pink or blue: Gender-stereotypic perceptions of infants as conveyed by birth congratulations cardsPsychology of Women Quarterly, 17(2), 193–205.


9. Ausmalbilder – Welche Farben haben Superheld*innen?

Rachel Karniol

More colors were used for figures stereotypically associated with one’s own gender. Boys’ use of female-stereotyped colors did not vary across figures and differed significantly from chance.  Boys avoided coloring the female-stereotyped figure and using pink. Girls used fewer female-stereotyped colors for the male-stereotyped figure but used both types of color equally for the other figures.

Karniol, Rachel. The Color of Children’s Gender StereotypesSex Roles 65, 119–132 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-011-9989-1


10. Kein Kleiderkauf ohne Geschlechtertrennung

Carly McNaughton

The physical space of “The Children’s Place” was examined on one subsequent visit to document how the store’s space sets up a divide between the genders making it virtually impossible for adults and children to make non-gendered purchases.

MacNaughton, Carly. 2017. ‚I’m a Princess‘: The Gendered Marketing of Children’s Clothing. Unveröffentlichte Masterarbeit. Halifax: Mount Saint Vincent University.


11. Pinke Mädchen, pinke Märkte… pink markiert

Svenja Adelt

Die Farbe Pink (oder auch rosa ) scheint im Angebot der Hersteller von Kinderbekleidung, Kinderspielzeug, ihrer Ausstattung und Pflege und sogar Kinderkosmetik allgegenwärtig zu sein. Sie ist kaum zu ignorieren und sie ist offenbar reserviert für weibliche Säuglinge und junge Mädchen. Pink für Jungen und männliche Babys ist hingegen nicht mehr vorgesehen und dies mittlerweile seit einem halben Jahrhundert.

Svenja Adelt: Pinke Mädchen, pinke Märkte… pink markiert (04.10.2020), Beltz Juventa, 69469 Weinheim, ISSN: 1438-5295, 2014 #1, S.4


12. Das Geschlecht der Marketingwissenschaft: Wie ‚männlich‘ ist sie und wie ‚weiblich‘ sollte sie sein?

Matthias Bode und Ursula Hansen

Ja, die Marketingwissenschaft ist männlich geprägt, und Nein, die Marketingwissenschaft muss nicht "weiblicher" werden, sondern besser. Besser heißt in diesem Sinne primär, die impliziten, geschlechtsspezifischen Einflüsse explizit und damit diskutierbar machen.

Matthias Bode und Ursula Hansen. 2005. „Das Geschlecht der Marketingwissenschaft: Wie ‚männlich‘ ist sie und wie ‚weiblich‘ sollte sie sein?“ In: Betriebswirtschaftslehre und Gender Studies: Analysen aus Organisation, Personal, Marketing und Controlling, herausgegeben von Gertraude Krell, 1. Aufl., S. 39–58. Wiesbaden: Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th.Gabler/ GWV Fachverlage GmbH.